What In Our opinion is Preventing India from Becoming a Developed Nation?
By Sonu Mehtha and Rezia Sapthika J
Umbrella for underdevelopment:
Authors strongly urge to bring out the view that:
“A nest could only be safe for the inhabitants when it’s not overcrowded”
The Planning Commission of India offered a definition of underdeveloped country as one “which is characterized by the co-existence, in greater or lesser degree, of unutilized or under-utilized manpower on the one hand and of the unexploited natural resources on the other”. According to this definition we can sum up how manpower in the country has been exploited and to what degree they have played a role in contributing to the underdevelopment of the country. India is one of the fastest developing countries in the world.
It is evident that the speed of the development is not as good when compared to the other countries that are already developed and that are much superior to India. There are many reasons behind the lack in the development criteria of India. Most of the people realize that India is very slow in development but they don't focus on what to be done in order to make India a developed country. Populations acting as the umbrella for underdevelopment of India, various other factors that accompany it are being discussed hereunder.
Firstly, the major factor that is a precedent for India to be prevented from becoming an developed nation has been unearthed and that is Population. Population further leads to various social, economic and political related complications. As rightly stated, excess of everything is bad. If there could be one single factor that has played the most significant role in decelerating India’s development march, it has to be population or over-population. For a country that was ripped off all or most of its treasures and wealth by the erstwhile British rulers who left behind a mess, feeding its hungry and ever-multiplying population was a Herculean task.
· The Government is not a dictator in India and hence it cannot provide unlimited development for all. The existence of private sector limits the powers of the Government and in India; this limited power cannot be utilized to satisfy the never ending growth in population. This is the sole reason for various fallbacks like Suicide of farmers- which is due to reduction in land every generation as the heirs increase, the land decrease and by end point- they are left with nothing worth labor and productivity.
· The belief of the masses of common citizens in India is that Democracy is not attained in its purest forms because of the failing, corrupt leaders, While the hidden rationale is Population.
· Let us consider a reduction in the population of about 20 crore every 10 years which results in about 70 crore in 30 years which can considerably leave some space for development as the government can plan accordingly and developed nation need not be a mirage for us.
· The supply and demand equation has always been highly unbalanced, the latter far exceeding the former thereby creating irreversible imbalances in the standard of living, resource utilization, employment, education, opportunities, healthcare, almost in every sphere. In the opinion of the authors, the only factor preventing India from reaching the developed status is its population explosion. Given the growth of population from 30 to 130 crore in about 70 years, India is not in a position to match the needs of its people. The plethora of other issues like Nepotism and Poverty are roots of the same origin.
Secondly, India has not withheld the talented minds for a better future in the country itself. The opportunities and openings available for the up-and-coming youths and the current work-force of the country are very less that they opt for a better life by resorting to emigration. Indians are the most capable, innovative, and insightful lot in the world when compared to most of the country’s population. Plenty of the world top International companies have Indian CEOs and many university professors across the world are also from Indian origin. Majority of the authors whose papers are published in Nature/Science, technology, political views, international relations, world economy are also from the Indian origin.
· In addition it is duly essential to consider that the model of Communist Policies followed by China allows their population policy to be in hand. India, at the contrary is a country wherein both the capitalist and communist views are rejected while accepting only the concepts of mixed economy which fails at the situation of given 130 crore of people. The mixed economy in India with the high population never ended showing any high growth, high public savings and a high degree of self-reliance, India was actually showing one of the lowest rates of growth in the developing world with a rising public deficit and a periodic balance of payment crises.
· Let us consider the branches of issues arising out of the trunk- Population. The caste struggle in our nation is an extended result of the fear of not being able to survive by one caste over the other. A similar notion or example can be drawn from the Hindu and Islamic rivalry which is an end result of Indians believing that Islam have their own land, Pakistan and should not be invading into their land in Hindustan. This not only brings down the principles of Secularism which has been enshrined in our Constitution but also delves for us to conclude that Population growth is giving a path to every other issue in our Nation. While we could always claim to be living in unity, we would someday have to accept that Unity as a concept is only in the Preamble and has never been found in India since its inception.
· Based on all of this evidence, India definitely has the ability and intelligence to develop itself into a technological-advanced nation. India has failed to hold back its virtuoso Engineers, Doctors, Lawyers, Scientists and Technicians, etc. by unorganized way of functioning of society. Owing to the mammoth population, cultural differences, racial differences, casteism, corruption and a trail of other things makes adept Indians to find a better and happening alternative.
· Every failed policy in our nation dwells on the failed methods of controlling population. A comparative argument of taking China into account may be bought in, but it should be considered that they’ve had a stagnant population by control methods for the last 50 years.
Thirdly, Politics and Population of India have never gone alongside. Politicians have always been slipshod in their political organizations by not catering to the needs of the people and attending to their hues and cries. The pressing current needs of people are always left for their own political interests and gains. Politicians work for their own welfare while leaving the population who anticipate on their decisions for the country.
· The Scandinavian countries, as well as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland, Germany and Japan, are all greatly admired. (Measured on the basis of education, low crime rates, wealth, low poverty rates). A communist policy in the current situation in India would be a massive failure like that of Russia because of the uncontrollable increase in people and inadequate development supplies for the same. For India to develop as a country, we don’t need political parties- we need leaders who lead their nation and educate their nation to only give birth to the number it could withhold.
· The necessary sense of community and national unity are prerequisites of their success; meaning, most people in these countries have the same value system and see their fellow countrymen as belonging to the same community. There is a contradiction on the lines of India in this case. In India, value system is long dead and fellowship among countrymen has now been replaced with fellowship among political party men. A 2006 meta-analysis found that democracy has no direct effect on economic growth. However, it has strong and significant indirect effects which contribute to growth. Democracy is associated with higher human capital accumulation, lower inflation, lower political instability, and higher economic freedom. Democracy is closely tied with economic sources of growth, like education levels and lifespan through improvement of educative institutions as well as healthcare. "As democracy expands in developing countries, newly empowered workers are likely to demand better living conditions, health care, access to clean water, and so on—all conditions that contribute to increased life expectancy and, in turn, to increased productivity".
· As democracies require certain political institutions, it is quite interesting that they do not have a high impact on economic growth. What matters for economic development is in fact political stability, rather than a particular political institution. As it is safe to assume that any political institution will promote development as long as it is stable, which means that the danger lies in political instability. The Indian political system is lacking in the concept of STABILITY.
· The continuance of influence from secularism, castes, corruption, personal interests, promotion of particular political party, holding of power to reign over the country, etc., is the main attribute of instability in India which leads to India still remaining as a developing country. It might be argued as to how Corruption is not the only factor that makes India a developing country. The answer is not manifold, Nations worldwide experience corruption. For that matter, even the Super Power USA experiences a corruption of 71 points out of 100 on the 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index reported by Transparency International.
Fourthly, the question of whether or not India is a developed or developing country is not so simple that it can be measured by the yardstick of the number of billionaires or a mission to the moon. To understand the real India, we need to look at many other indicators, such as health and education of population too. We think the level of development in a country is directly proportionate to the way we choose to treat our children, elderly and the disabled. As far as India is concerned, we might score very highly in terms of growth of physical infrastructure, but most of the public places are inaccessible to people with disabilities.
· The public sector in this mixed economy failed miserably as it -instead of being a generator of savings for the community’s good- became, over time, a consumer of community’s savings. And while the laws of India provide Sovereign immunity to the public servants for an efficient execution of the policies, the inability to satisfy any of the public policies was aided by the same.
· As per the 2011 census, India has about 2.7 million people with disabilities, and only a handful of those enjoy education and/or employment. We are spending less than 4% of our GDP on important areas of education and health. Almost 12% of our children (between 5 and 15 years) are identified as child labour, and we have about 2.4 million people living with HIV/Aids. Almost 25% of my fellow Indians are poor – in the same India where millions use smartphones. Within India, there are many different countries.
· One is high-flying and tech-savvy, [with people] driving flashy cars in and out of top-starred hotels and clubs. Another is white-collared middle class. And another is still struggling to survive. There is no doubt that in some areas we are a developed country and, as far as people with disability are concerned, we have created facilities and a support system. But in many areas we still have long way to go.
· The policies planned by any government failed miserably because the policies were planned for a fixed period and a fixed population and were supposed to produce a certain result. On the other end, what the mass population of illiterates and citizens believing in old practices aimed at was high birth rate leading to a massive failure of each public policy as the certain population changed along with resulting changes in efficacy of the policy.
· What’s astonishing is that no political party in India has aimed at controlling this population growth. Each of the parties aimed at GDP growth, Globalization without even realizing that the problem’s solution is within the Nation and not elsewhere. The only policy which bought about considerable results in the area of population was that of Indira Gandhi- “Hum do Hamare do.” After this, there has been only an explosion of policy leading to further poor development rate in India.
Furthermore, India is threatened about its own survival- but the problem is Indians are seeing this destruction through the eyes of their religion, caste and race and are only aiming at protecting theirs while pushing the other down. What Indians fail to look at is that – “India isn’t growing anymore” and the problem is not “a set of people” but “uncontrollable growth of people.”
 Census Organisation, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, on http://censusindia.gov.in/Vital_Statistics/SRS/Sample_Registration_System.html last seen on 31/3/2019.
 The Indian Economy Since Independence, M.H. Singh, http://home.fau.edu/sghosh/web/images/India%20talk.pdf last seen on 31/3/2019.
 China’s Population Destiny -Looming Crisis, Feng Wang, https://www.brookings.edu/articles/chinas-population-destiny-the-looming-crisis/ last seen on 31/03/2019
 Baum, Matthew A.; Lake, David A. (April 2003). "The Political Economy of Growth: Democracy and Human Capital". American Journal of Political Science. 47 (2): 333.
 United States Corruption Index, Forecast, https://tradingeconomics.com/united-states/corruption-index last seen on 31/3/2019.